The I4.0 Components approach is in fact a software based revolution. Jeremy Rifkin uses the "firewall metaphor" to show us how the cyber world (the world of computing and networks) anticipates new phenomena that soon o later will happen in the real world. Flexible manufacturing and Zero Marginal Cost replication makes this possible.

The Internet of Things (IoT) and CPSs are pillars of the 4th Industrial Revolution. The Industrie 4.0 Plattform and the Industry IoT Consortium have decided the convergence of their RAMI 4.0 and IIRA reference architectures. Cloud and Edge play a key role facilitating connectivity and making available computational and storage resources.

Simulation and Low-Code Software Engineering-based Digital Twins are suitable for transversal mechanical, electrical, and other fields solutions. In times of Cyber-physical Systems (CPSs) and hybridization our an holistic must be used in new developments (greenfield) and for into the existing assets refactoring (brownfield).

Embedded electronic devices pave the way to mix physical with virtual objects. Embedded Systems are in the center of the 4th Industrial Revolution. Sophisticated scale ones use full fledged Operating Systems like Linux and C++ or Java inspired object oriented technologies. Qualitatively, almost the whole Computer Science fits in a an Embedded System.

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